The envelope glycoprotein structure consists of two protein subunits cleaved from a Gp160 protein precursor encoded for by the HIV-1 env gene: the Gp120 external subunit, and the Gp41 transmembrane subunit.
Because binding to CD4 alone can sometimes result in gp120 shedding, gp120 must next bind to co-receptor CCR5 in order for fusion to proceed.
In addition, in West Nile virus pathogenesis, CCR5 plays an antimicrobial role showing that host genetic factors are highly pathogen-specific.
A mutação CCR5-Δ32 é mais comum nos países do norte da Europa.
C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved in the immune system as it acts as a receptor for chemokines.
Certain individuals carry a mutation known as CCR5-Δ32 in the CCR5 gene, protecting them against these strains of HIV.
In humans, the CCR5 gene that encodes the CCR5 protein is located on the short (p) arm at position 21 on chromosome 3.
This is the process by which T cells are attracted to specific tissue and organ targets.
Many forms of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, initially use CCR5 to enter and infect host cells.The V1-V2 stem can influence "co-receptor usage through its peptide composition as well as by the degree of N-linked glycosylation." Unlike V1-V2 however, the V3 loop is highly variable and thus is the most important determinant of co-receptor specificity.The normal ligands for this receptor, RANTES, MIP-1β, and MIP-1α, are able to suppress HIV-1 infection in vitro.O alelo CCR5delta32 resulta numa proteina que fica presa à membrana do retículo endoplasmático e não consegue se alojar na membrana plasmática.Como essa proteína é o sitio primário de ligação do vírus HIV com as células T, sem o receptor exposto na membrana o vírus não consegue infectar a célula, tornando a pessoa com esse alelo em homozigose imune ao HIV.The tyrosine sulfated amino terminus of this co-receptor is the "essential determinant" of binding to the gp120 glycoprotein.