Critics point out that it may not be a shroud at all, but rather a rectangular tombstone, as seen on other sacred images.However the presence of the Turin Shroud in Lirey, France, is only undoubtedly attested in 1390 when Bishop Pierre d'Arcis wrote a memorandum to Antipope Clement VII, stating that the shroud was a forgery and that the artist had confessed.
Historical records seem to indicate that a shroud bearing an image of a crucified man existed in the small town of Lirey around the years 1353 to 1357 in the possession of a French Knight, Geoffroi de Charny, who died at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356.
However the correspondence of this shroud in Lirey with the shroud in Turin, and its origin has been debated by scholars and lay authors, with statements of forgery attributed to artists born a century apart.
Some contend that the Lirey shroud was the work of a confessed forger and murderer.
There are no definite historical records concerning the particular shroud currently at Turin Cathedral prior to the 14th century.
The origins of the shroud and its images are the subject of intense debate among theologians, historians and other researchers.
Diverse arguments have been made in scientific and popular publications claiming to prove that the cloth is the authentic burial shroud of Jesus, based on disciplines ranging from chemistry to biology and medical forensics to optical image analysis.in the chapel built for that purpose by Guarino Guarini) and in the 19th century it was first photographed during a public exhibition.In 1532, the shroud suffered damage from a fire in a chapel of Chambéry, capital of the Savoy region, where it was stored.Reddish-brown stains are found on the cloth, showing various wounds that, according to proponents, correlate with the yellowish image, the pathophysiology of crucifixion, and the Biblical description of the death of Jesus.The details of the image on the shroud are not easily seen with the naked eye, but they can be more clearly revealed through photography.A burial cloth, which some historians maintain was the Shroud, was owned by the Byzantine emperors but disappeared during the Sack of Constantinople in 1204.