Later tribal names differ from the classical sources, but are probably still related to the modern Amazigh.
The Meshwesh tribe among them represents the first thus identified from the field.
The exonym was later adopted by the Greeks, with a similar connotation.
The Ottomans did penetrate the Kabylie area, and to places the Phoenicians never penetrated, far beyond the coast, where Turkish influence can be seen in food, clothes and music.
These areas have been affected by some of the many invasions of North Africa, most recently that of the French.
A Neolithic society, marked by domestication and subsistence agriculture, developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean region (the Maghreb) of northern Africa between 60 BC.
This type of life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer cave paintings of southeastern Algeria, predominated in the Maghreb until the classical period.
Much of Berber culture is still celebrated among the cultural elite in Morocco and Algeria.
The areas of North Africa that have retained the Berber language and traditions best have been, in general, Morocco and the Hautes Plaines of Algeria (Kabylie, Aurès etc.), most of which in Roman and Ottoman times had remained largely independent.
Small Berber populations are also found in Niger, Mali, Mauritania, Burkina Faso and Egypt, as well as large immigrant communities living in France, Canada, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, and other countries of Europe.
The Berber identity is usually wider than language and ethnicity, and encompasses the entire history and geography of North Africa.
Berbers are not an entirely homogeneous ethnicity and they encompass a range of societies and ancestries.