The land is mostly low lying except in the north-eastern corner with the Gambaga escarpment and along the western corridor.The region is drained by the Black and white Volta and their tributaries, Rivers Nasia, Daka, etc.
Climatically, religiously, linguistically, and culturally, the region differs greatly from the politically and economically dominating regions of central and southern Ghana.
It shares boundaries with the Upper East and the Upper West Regions to the north, the Brong Ahafo and the Volta Regions to the south, and two neighbouring countries, the Republic of Togo to the east, and La Cote d’ Ivoire to the west.
The Gonja language is spoken mostly in three districts, namely East Gonja, West Gonja and Bole.
Dagbani, the language of the Dagomba, is spoken in nine of the thirteen districts.
Climate and vegetation The climate of the region is relatively dry, with a single rainy season that begins in May and ends in October.
The amount of rainfall recorded annually varies between 750 mm and 1050 mm.
Population size and distribution The Northern Region is the largest of the 10 regions of the country in terms of landmass, occupying 70,384 square kilometres and accounting for 29.5 per cent of the total land area of Ghana.
It has almost the same land area as the Western, Greater Accra, Volta and Eastern Regions put together (28.1%) or the Brong Ahafo, Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions combined (28.2%).
The region also falls in the onchocerciasis zone, but even though the disease is currently under control, the vast area is still under populated and undercultivated.