In compound names some mixed forms can occur, such as José Carlos being called Zeca, or Maria Luísa being called Malu.The phenomenon also occurs with terms of address other than personal names; for example, a cachorro or cão (both meaning "dog") can be affectionately called cachorrinho or cãozinho (the most common translations of the English word puppy).There are however some exceptions, for example Nonni which is an alternative from for Jón.
In recent times, however, the hypocoristic forms of many Bulgarian names receive English and Russian endings, for example: Increasingly, the official form of Dutch given names as registered at birth is one that originally was hypocoristic.
For many of the hypocorisms listed below, a diminutive may be used (e.g.
The traditional hypocoristic forms of Bulgarian masculine names end with "-cho", for example: Ivan - Ivancho - Vancho, Stoyan - Stoyancho, Petur - Peturcho, Angel - Angelcho.
The traditional hypocoristic forms of Bulgarian feminine names end with "-ka", for example: Ivana - Ivanka, Snezhana - Snezhanka, Bozhana - Bozhanka.
Further diminutives can be added with the suffixes -ka, -ke, -kó, -csi, etc., e. Lacika, Ferike, Palkó and Julcsi as a diminutive respectively for László, Ferenc, Pál and Júlia.
Hypocorisms usually consist of the first syllable of the name with a diminutive suffix ending in -i (masculine) or -a or ý (feminine).Some of the stems change, particularly to more archaic forms of the name (e.g. Some masculine names take an -o suffix that is considered archaic form, present in Polish since pagan times.Masculine names occasionally take an -a suffix, which is an archaic Slavic form In Portuguese, abbreviations of the name are common, as are suffixes for diminutive and augmentative.For males, the suffixes -inho (diminutive) and -ão (augmentative) are the most used.In several parts of Brazil, -inho is informally replaced by -im in diminutive words.Hypocorisms of first names are commonly based on truncation, only keeping the first (Max) or last (Hans) syllable(s), sometimes in contracted form as these examples show. Hypocorisms of first names are commonly based on truncation, only keeping the first (Kat-; Jul-) syllable, sometimes in contracted form as these examples show.